The Cold War waged on economic, political, as well as the propaganda fronts and included limited recourse to weapons. The term was first used by the famous English writer George Orwell who mentioned it in an article that he published in 1945. By this name writer referred to what he prognosticated would be a nuclear pause between two or three monstrous nations, each possessed of a weapon by which millions of people can be annihilated in just a few seconds. The first who used the term was an American presidential adviser Bernard Baruch who mentioned it in a speech that he held at the State House in Columbia, in 1947.
Origins of the War
Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945 near the close of World War II, the shaky alliance between the U.S. and Great Britain, on the one hand, and the Soviet Union on the other started to unravel. By 1948 the Soviets had established left-wing governments in the countries of eastern Europe that had been freed by the Red Army. The British and the Americans were scared of the permanent Soviet domination of Eastern Europe as well as the threat of Soviet-influenced communist parties gaining power in the democracies of western Europe. The Soviets, on the other hand, were planning to keep control of eastern Europe to safeguard against any potential threat from Germany. Another reason was their determination to spread communism worldwide, mainly for ideological causes. The Cold War had hardened by 1947–1948, when the U.S. aid provided under the Marshall Plan to western Europe had led those nations under American influence, and the Soviets had openly established communist regimes in eastern Europe.